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Public investment

Financing public investment is complicated by the common difficulty in quantifying the effects of an investment, or capturing returns that are multi-dimensional and diffuse. This particularly applies to preventative investment. Private funding can be used where there are clear streams of revenue resulting from the investment, with the public funding element covering the wider social impact elements of an investment, and reducing risk.

Endowment finance

Endowment finance such as the National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts (NESTA) in the UK, or the various endowments established by the Canadian Government in the 2000s.

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