Social care currencies
The largest scheme of this kind is the Japanese Health Care Currency, or Fureai Kippu, which evolved when it became apparent that the growing elderly population could not be adequately cared for with government revenue. In this scheme someone works for an hour helping an old person with shopping or housework. If they work outside the hours of 9 to 5 they get one and a half hours credited to them. If they undertake body care work they get two hours. The time dollars they receive can either be used for themselves or donated to friends and relatives elsewhere. There are some 300 community currencies now operating in Japan, many using smart cards, and focusing on the provision of care.