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Over the last few decades, there has been an explosion of methods designed to engage citizens in the deliberation and formulation of public policy – this includes participatory budgeting, participatory planning and a host of other methods for public participation. Here are a number of key publications on the subject.


Andrea Cornwall and Vera Schattan Coelho (eds), Spaces for Change, Zed Books, 2007

Leonardo Avritzer, Participatory Institutions in Democratic Brazil, Woodrow Wilson Centre Press, 2009

M.P. Parameswaran, Democracy by the People, Alternatives Asia, 2008

Robert Chambers, Participatory Workshops: a sourcebook of 21 sets of ideas and activities, London, Earthscan, 2002 and Revolutions in Development Inquiry, Earthscan, 2008