Operational metrics, such as those for statistical production control to spot emergent problems as prompts for innovation (see method 18). For example, a study of the operational data of public housing repairs found that the time taken to do repairs varied from a few minutes to 85 days, and the variations were getting worse. This led to a redesign of the system that in turn lowered the average completion time to 8 days and reduced the degree of variation.
(This example is discussed in John Seddon, Freedom from Command and Control, Vanguard Education 2003, Chapter 5. Seddon discusses the principles of operational metrics based on flow.)