The circuit of information
New needs can also be brought to the fore through effective feedback systems. Such systems can help practitioners and front line staff understand the needs of users and better tailor services accordingly. In industry and commerce the capacity to collect and analyse large quantities of data has been the basis for the remarkable changes in flexible manufacturing for example, and in the practice of retailing. In Japanese factories data is collected by front line workers, and then discussed in quality circles that include technicians. Statistical production techniques reveal patterns that are not evident to those directly involved, and have been transferred with remarkable results to the medical treatment of patients in the US.